Silicon photonic microring resonators have established their potential for label-free and low-cost biosensing applications. However, the long-term performance of this optical sensing platform requires robust surface modification and biofunctionalization. Herein, we demonstrate a conjugation strategy based on an organophosphonate surface coating and vinyl sulfone linker to biofunctionalize silicon resonators for biomolecular sensing. To validate this method, a series of glycans, including carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, were immobilized on divinyl sulfone (DVS)/organophosphonate-modified microrings and used to characterize carbohydrate-protein and norovirus particle interactions. This biofunctional platform was able to orthogonally detect multiple specific carbohydrate-protein interactions simultaneously. Additionally, the platform was capable of reproducible binding after multiple regenerations by high-salt, high-pH, or low-pH solutions and after 1 month storage in ambient conditions. This remarkable stability and durability of the organophosphonate immobilization strategy will facilitate the application of silicon microring resonators in various sensing conditions, prolong their lifetime, and minimize the cost for storage and delivery; these characteristics are requisite for developing biosensors for point-of-care and distributed diagnostics and other biomedical applications. In addition, the platform demonstrated its ability to characterize carbohydrate-mediated host-virus interactions, providing a facile method for discovering new antiviral agents to prevent infectious disease.